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Glass Forming & Processing: A New Twist to Oxy-Fuel Melting

    For a number of years, glass melting technologies have been based on heating glass with the radiant energy from flames fired horizontally above the melt. In this design, the heat transfer efficiency is generally limited by the size of the furnace and the temperature limit of the refractories. Even oxy-fuel combustion, which has been used for more than a decade, is restricted by these heat transfer dynamics.
    Recently, however, a new system* was developed that overcomes these limitations. Rather than firing horizontally, the system directs the oxy-fuel flames almost vertically down onto the batch surface at the charging end of the furnace. By modifying conventional oxy-fuel melting technology, the new melting system provides significant improvements in melting rates and/or quality. Firing vertically onto the batch, however, can significantly enhance convective heat transfer. the vertically oriented oxy-fuel flames in the new melting system actually impinge and flow radially over the batch and glass bath.
    Significant thinning of boundary layers occurs, leading to intimate contact between the extremely hot flame and the cooler batch and glass bath.
    Oxy-fuel flames contain significant concentrations of partially reacted and partially dissociated species. As these species move toward the cool batch surface, they oxidize/recombine and liberate still more energy to the surface, further enhancing the convective heat transfer. This process also increases radiative flux because the burners in the new melting system are designed to produce the majority of the high-temperature combustion reactions near the batch, thereby increasing the radiation to the batch. The increase in total heat transfer to the batch enables increased melting rates. Further, since the burners are installed in the crown rather than the side walls, fewer obstructions affect burner placement. Consequently, the new melting system can supply more energy per square foot of batch surface area without increasing refractory temperatures beyond normal operating limits. The result is a melting system that enables furnaces to melt more glass, and/or higher quality glass, in a furnace of a given size.
(选自http://www.ceramicindustry.com)
氧燃料熔融工艺的新发展

    多年来,玻璃熔融工艺都是通过高于玻璃熔点的横烧火焰所产生的辐射能来加热玻璃的。采用这种方法时,传热效率往往会受到窑炉的尺寸大小和窑炉耐火材料所能承受的极限温度的限制而大打折扣。就连已被人们使用了十多年的氧燃料的燃烧法,也会受到这些传热动力学方面的限制。
    最近,一套新系统的开发解决了这些局限性。该系统不采用横烧,而是使氧燃料燃烧的火焰在窑炉的进料端直接垂直作用于配合料表面。通过对传统的氧燃料熔融工艺进行改进,这种新的熔融系统大大提高了熔融速率和熔融质量。燃烧的火焰直接作用于配合料表面,也可大大增强对流传热。采用这种新的熔融设备,当氧燃料燃烧时,产生的垂直的火焰直接冲击至配合料的上方。此时,边界层开始大大变薄,使得极热的火焰可与冷的配合料和玻璃容器之间进行亲密接触。氧燃料燃烧的火焰中富集着大量已发生部分反应和部分分裂的物质。当这些物种靠近冷的配合料表面时,它们会发生氧化并重新结合,从而释放出更多的能量至配合料表面,最终进一步增强了对流传热。该工艺过程同时也提高了辐射流量,因为这种新的熔融系统所采用的燃烧器是为了能够在配合料附近发生更多的高温燃烧反应而专门设计的,因此能够增加对配合料的辐射。
    对配合料传热量的增加提高了熔融速率。此外,因为燃烧器是安装在窑炉顶部而非侧壁上,因此更易于安装。这种新的熔融系统能够为每平方英尺的配合料表面提供更多的能量,同时又不会使耐火材料的温度超过正常标准。这些特点都使得该系统能使一个特定大小的窑炉熔融出更多、质量更高的玻璃。

中国陶瓷信息资源网 王素媛 译自http://www.ceramicindustry.com

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发布日: 2003-2-19
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